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Klonopin is an antiepileptic drug derived from benzodiazepine. It also has a muscle relaxant, sedative, and hypnotic effect. The active ingredient in this drug is clonazepam.
The medicinal substance is an amplifier of inhibitors (mediators of presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition processes that occur in all parts of the central nervous system) and affects the propagation of nerve impulses. It stimulates the so-called benzodiazepine receptors, which are located in the neurons of the spinal cord and brain, and also inhibits the processes of excitability in the subcortical structures of the brain (these include the thalamus, limbic system, hypothalamus). Spinal polysynaptic reflexes are also subject to inhibition.
The anxiolytic (that is, anti-anxiety) effect of the drug is due to the effect on the limbic system and is manifested by a decrease in emotionality, a decrease in anxiety, fear, and anxiety.
The sedative effect is manifested due to the influence on the thalamic and reticular systems and is characterized by a decrease in neurotic symptoms (fear, anxiety).
The anticonvulsant effect of the drug occurs due to presynaptic inhibition. In this case, the epileptic activity is suppressed, but the excitation of the focus does not decrease.
It has been proven by clinical studies that the substance clonazepam eliminates attacks of paroxysmal activity of various types. The EEG shows changes of the focal and generalized type. Klonopin in these two types of epilepsy is quite effective. The muscle relaxant effect is due to direct inhibition of the functions of muscles and motor nerves, as well as inhibition of spinal polysynaptic and monosynaptic inhibitory afferent pathways. Pharmacokinetics The bioavailability of the drug when taken orally (that is, when taken orally) is at least 90%. Excretion from the body is in the form of metabolites.
Epileptic seizures in children and adults.
Tonic-clonic convulsions (such convulsions can occur not only with epilepsy, but also, for example, with an acute alcoholic state; they are characterized by muscle hypertonicity).
Atonic seizures (the so-called "drop-attacks" or "fall" syndrome). They are characterized by a sharp relaxation of the muscles and sphincters, as a result of which, during an attack, the patient may involuntarily excrete feces or urine.
The fall syndrome is a condition where the patient, being lucid, suddenly "loses his footing" and falls to the floor.
Nodding spasms (otherwise they are called "greeting spasms"). Most often, these seizures occur in infants. They are characterized by nodding movements of the head, spasm of the muscles of the neck and involuntary twitching of the eyes.
West's syndrome ("infantile spasms"). The cause of this disease, often leading to death, is a congenital pathology of brain development. Children with West syndrome have impaired psychomotor development.
Status epilepticus is a condition in which epileptic seizures are repeated one after another, and in the intervals between them the patient is unconscious. Status can be a manifestation of the disease or its complication. In status epilepticus, intravenous administration of the drug is indicated.
Other indications of Klonopin
Increased muscle tone, somnambulism, psychomotor agitation, insomnia in organic disorders, panic disorders, alcohol withdrawal syndrome (this includes signs of severe psychomotor agitation, tremor, agitation, acute or developing alcoholic delirium, and hallucinations).
Respiratory depression; respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hypersensitivity to the active substance. Alcohol poisoning, accompanied by a weakening of the vital functions of life. Acute condition after poisoning with sleeping pills or narcotic analgesics. Myasthenia. Glaucoma (an ophthalmic disease in which there is increased pressure inside the eye; as well as involution of the optic nerve, which leads to a serious violation of its function). Shock; coma. Pregnancy. Severe depression (taking the drug may increase suicidal tendencies).
If the patient is recommended to switch to another antiepileptic drug, then the transition should be carried out slowly, monitoring the patient's condition. The combined use of drugs can cause an increase in the sedative effect, and as a result of this, the patient will become lethargic. To avoid this, precise dosage adjustments are required.
Long-term treatment with anticonvulsants may affect liver function. In addition, the longer Klonopin is used, the higher the likelihood of developing drug dependence, especially if the patient has previously abused drugs or ethanol.
Long-term treatment with Clonazepam in children can lead to side effects on their mental development, and the most dangerous thing is that this will not come to light immediately, but after a few years, when a significant difference in development between this child and his peers becomes noticeable.
The drug can be prescribed to pregnant women only if the benefit from it exceeds the possible negative effect. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the administration of the drug can especially damage the fetus (congenital heart defects may develop). When prescribing Klonopin in the last trimester, this can lead to a violation of the heart rhythm in the fetus; to hypoxia.